UK state pensions are paid out to all UK citizens when they reach the state retirement age, providing they have paid their National Insurance (NI) contributions.
At the moment the national retirement age is 65 for men and 60 for women, however this is set to change imminently. Earlier this year the Coalition Government announced plans to speed up the rate at which pension ages increase, it is thought that the male UK pension age will rise to 66 by 2016, with the female age rising to 65 by 2020.
All UK citizens are entitled to receive the UK state pension once they reach the UK retirement age and they have paid the necessary NI contributions.
Different people receive different amounts based on their own individual circumstances. UK state pensions are defined by benefit levels.
The UK state pension is made up of a number of components including:
The amount you receive through the basic UK pension is dependent on how many years you spent working in your life, these are known as qualifying years. During these qualifying years you will have paid NI contributions which go towards the pension.
Some people are also entitled to the UK additional state pension, depending on their personal circumstances. The additional state pension is also known as the State Second Pension and was previously called the SERP (State Earnings Related Pension Scheme). If you qualify for this it will be paid on top of the basic state pension. Since 2002 SERPS have given extra pension income to people who are on low or moderate wages, and also people with disabilities, long-term illnesses and also their carers.
People who have been have been receiving Long-term Incapacity Benefit Age Addition at any point during the 8 week period leading up to the day they reached the state pension age will find that their UK state pension is increased.
Some people may also find that they can receive a larger UK state pension for their wife, husband or civil partner. If you look after children while in your pension years you can receive more money via Child Tax Credits.
In 2007 a Pensions Act was passed that brought in a number of changes to the previous UK pension system. Married women who were denied a basic UK pension due to insufficient NI contributions may now be able to receive a basic UK pension via their husbands NI contributions, this arrangement can only occur if the husband is already receiving the basic UK pension and the wife is aged 60 or older. People who have lost a spouse may now be able to receive a basic UK pension through their late partner’s NI contributions. If your partner was at the UK pension age before October 2002 then you may also be able to receive the whole of their additional state pension when they die. If your partner arrived at the UK pension age before 6 October 2010 and they pass away before you do then you may receive between 60 and 90 percent of their SERPS, with the final amount depending on when they reached the UK retirement age. If your partner dies after reaching the UK pension age past 6 October 2010 then you may receive 50 percent of their remaining SERPS. If you are divorced from your partner and cannot get a basic UK pension due to NI you may still be able to receive one based on your ex-partner’s contributions. If you continue to work after receiving the basic UK pension then your wages will not affect the pension. You can receive extra on your basic UK pension if you hold off from claiming your pension for a minimum of five weeks from the date it becomes available.
If you travel abroad then you must alert The Pension Service, you can usually continue receiving your pension while you are abroad but most benefits will probably be cut.
If you go on an extended vacation you can either continue to have our basic UK pension paid into a bank account or you can receive the payments as a lump sum when you return.
Again, you can either continue to have the pension paid into your account, or you can have the pension as a lump sum when you return.
You are still allowed to receive your UK basic pension, if you want it can be paid into a foreign bank account, you can name somebody in the UK to receive it on your behalf, if you are abroad for around 2 years you can receive it as a lump sum upon your return.
If you choose to work voluntarily this will not affect your pension.
A QROPS is a overseas pension transfer that allows you to move you pension fund offshore for potential benefits, at present you are unable to do this with a basic state pension. Learn more about QROPS here.